Check out the other posts in this series! __Emergent Part 1__, __Perceptual Part 2__, __Figurative Part 3__, __Initial Number Sequence Part 4__, __Intermediate Number Sequence Part 5__,

Get the __full overview__ in one place! Presented at the Making Math Moments Summit, you can get the __full presentation here__!

A student in this stage will be able to use many ** non-counting-by-ones** strategies to solve addition and subtraction problems such as

Compensation- adding a number and then subtracting to make a problem easier to solve but remembering to add or subtract the number you added

Using a known result, common in number strings

Making tens

Doubles and near-doubles

Decomposing numbers

Commutativity (realize the order of the addends does not change the answer in addition problems)

Subtraction as the inverse of addition

## What do I look out for?

Can count forwards and backward to 100 and beyond

Can skip count by 2s, 3s, 4s, 5s, and 10s

Recognize numbers to 100 and many 3-digit numbers but numbers with a zero in the tens place may still be tricky.

Will understand tens and ones like knowing that 26 is two tens and six ones

May be able to use skip counting and repeated addition to solve multiplication and division problems like finding out the number of items altogether in equal groups or arrays

## How can I help students in this stage of counting?

Your students are really getting into a flow at this stage. They are ready for more challenging and complex problems! Continue giving them opportunities to make sense of numbers and how they work!

Students at this stage are ready to

work on adding and subtracting two-digit and three-digit numbers, with various strategies.

multiplication and division with

__skip counting__, repeated addition, and arrays.

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